Pending review. Contribute to this article.

Methylphenidate, sold under the trade name Ritalin among others, is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is a first line medication for ADHD. It may be taken by mouth or applied to the skin. Different formulations have varying durations of effect.

Common side effects include trouble sleeping, anxiety and weight loss.[2] More serious side effects may include psychosis, allergic reactions, prolonged erections, abuse and heart problems. Methylphenidate is believed to work by improving the action of catecholamines in the brain. It achieves this by blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake by neurons. Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes.

Methylphenidate was first made in 1944 and was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955. It was originally sold by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It is estimated that in 2013, 2.4 billion doses of methylphenidate were taken worldwide. About 80% of this was taken by people in the United States making it the 47th most prescribed medication there. It is available as a generic medication. In the United States, the wholesale cost of the immediate release formulation is less than US$0.30 per dose as of 2018.

Worth reading:

Best Adderall Alternatives


Noopept improves cognition & memory. It is structurally similar, but far more potent than Piracetam. Research found it increases levels of BDNF, which play a role in neuroplasticity & learning. It’s been shown to improve learning & memory, reduce anxiety and depression symptoms.

Read More
Lion’s Mane Mushroom

Lion’s mane mushroom is an edible nootropic mushroom native to North America, Europe, and Asia. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for its health benefits, and more recently it has gained popularity as a nootropic supplement. Studies suggest it has several benefits, including improving cognitive function, reducing inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain, and promoting nerve growth and regeneration.

Read More
Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola rosea, also known as golden root or roseroot, is a herb that grows in the mountains of Europe and Asia. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to help improve mood, reduce stress and anxiety, and enhance physical and mental performance. Studies suggest that rhodiola rosea has nootropic effects, as it helps to improve cognitive function and brain health.

Read More

Sulbutiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is a nootropic thought to improve memory and cognitive function, improves concentration and focus, reduces fatigue, increases ,ental energy, and supports mood and emotional well-being. It does that by increasing the brain’s uptake of glucose, the primary source of energy for cells. Studies suggest that it may be useful in treating conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and depression, although more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

Read More
Tongkat Ali

Tongkat Ali is a supplement made from the roots of the Tongkat Ali plant. The roots are used to make an herbal supplement that is claimed to improve male sexual function and fertility.

Read More
Phenylpiracetam Hydrazide

Phenylpiracetam Hydrazide (also known as Fonturacetam) is a derivative of the performance-enhancing nootropic Phenylpiracetam. It has been gaining a lot of popularity since Phenylpiracetam was discontinued. It’s a smart drug widely used to improve memory, stimulate the central nervous system (CNS), and improve overall cognition. Introduction Phenylpiracetam Hydrazide is an effective cognitive

Read More

MDMA, or ecstasy, is a psychoactive drug that induces feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and heightened sensations. It can also lead to increased heart rate and blood pressure, as well as dehydration. Ecstasy is often used in social situations, such as parties or clubs, and is sometimes used to facilitate sexual activity.

Read More
N-Acetyl L-Cysteine

N-Acetyl L-Cysteine, an amino acid that is often taken as a dietary supplement. It is sometimes used to help treat respiratory problems, such as bronchitis and asthma, and has also been shown to be helpful in treating liver disease. N-Acetyl L-Cysteine is thought to work by helping to remove toxins from the

Read More

CDP-cholin, or Citicoline, is a safe, potent, and extremely well-tolerated nootropic. It enhances memory and protects the brain serving as a neuroprotectant. In combination with other supplements, it works as a powerful potentiator, especially racetams. Overview Citicoline, also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline or cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine is an intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from

Read More

What is Taurine? Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a principal constituent of bile and can also be found in the large intestine, which aids in fat absorption. Taurine is also in the bloodstream and plays a role in osmoregulation (water balance) and detoxification. It

Read More
Fladrafinil (CRL-40-941)

Fladrafinil is a recently introduced wakefulness-promoting agent structurally similar to, as well as the prodrug, Modafinil.  According to Wikipedia, a prodrug is a “compound that, after intake, is converted within the body…..prodrugs are often designed to improve bioavailability…this reduces adverse or unintended effects.” This means, in simplified language, that our bodies convert Fladrafinil into

Read More
Magnesium Glycinate

Overview Magnesium is a vital mineral used in many biological processes. It is an essential for neuroplasticity and ATP generation, both crucial for learning, memory, and cognitive function. Magnesium deficiency affects many people in our modern world today. It is found in green leafy vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains, poultry, steak,

Read More